Hardening Android's Bionic libc

Extending the exploit mitigations in Android's standard C library implementation
A blog post by Team Copperhead

This article provides an overview of the security improvements implemented in the CopperheadOS libc. The improvements are available in Copperhead’s Bionic repository on GitHub and a subset of the work has been submitted upstream. The intention is to upstream as much as possible. However, CopperheadOS fills a different niche than vanilla Android so it can make sacrifices to performance, memory usage and compatibility that aren’t suitable in the upstream project.

All of the CopperheadOS repositories are now public on GitHub and an alpha release with pre-built ROMs for the Nexus 5 and Samsung Galaxy S4 will happen in the near future. Build instructions will also be posted soon.


The _FORTIFY_SOURCE feature provides inline wrappers for C standard library functions designed to catch common classes of vulnerabilities before they can be exploited. It’s primarily used to catch buffer overflows via the __builtin_object_size intrinsic, although it can catch other issues. Buffer overflows are still one of the most common classes of vulnerabilities in Android because there’s a lot of C and C++ code underlying the memory safe Java. C standard library functions like memcpy tend to be a major source of these issues as they’re widely used. Programs using homegrown functions need to be migrated over to standard ones to take advantage of this feature.

Android uses _FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 internally, but it’s not yet used by the NDK because it needs to provide forwards compatibility there. It needs to be tied to the __ANDROID_API__ define, with fortified functions only being used if they are available across the API levels supported by the application.

The __builtin_object_size(ptr, type) intrinsic returns the size of the object ptr points at, which can be used to implement buffer overflow checks. With type set to 0 or 1, it will return the maximum possible size (SIZE_MAX if unknown), while 2 and 3 provide the minimum (0 if unknown). The 2 and 3 values are not used by _FORTIFY_SOURCE because it would cause many false positives.

The 0 and 2 types include all surrounding objects, while 1 and 3 return only the set of the subobject. _FORTIFY_SOURCE=1 uses 0 for compliance with the C standards, while _FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 uses 1 for many functions to catch more vulnerabilities at the expense of having some rare false positives. There are still functions where 0 is used (the memcpy and read families) so there could be a _FORTIFY_SOURCE=3 option in the future.

This example demonstrates the distinction between _FORTIFY_SOURCE=1 and _FORTIFY_SOURCE=2:

#include <stdio.h>

struct blob {
    char buf[64];
    char buf2[64];
    char buf3[64];

int main(void) {
    struct blob b;
    printf("%zu\n", __builtin_object_size(b.buf2, 0));
    printf("%zu\n", __builtin_object_size(b.buf2, 1));
    return 0;



CopperheadOS has added fortified implementations of the following functions, with more to come:

  • fread (upstreamed)
  • fwrite (upstreamed)
  • getcwd (submitted upstream)
  • memchr (upstreamed)
  • memrchr (upstreamed)
  • pread (upstreamed)
  • pread64 (upstreamed)
  • pwrite
  • pwrite64
  • readlink (upstreamed)
  • readlinkat (upstreamed)
  • realpath (upstreamed)
  • write


A simple example is the POSIX read function:

ssize_t read(int fd, void *buf, size_t count);

A count higher than the size of the buffer will (usually) lead to a buffer overflow. When the buffer size can be determined at compile-time by the compiler, _FORTIFY_SOURCE can catch any overflows.

If the compiler can statically determine the count value, the error will be produced at compile-time:

#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int main(void) {
    char buf[1];
    int fd = open("/dev/zero", O_RDONLY);
    if (fd == -1)
        return 1;
    read(fd, buf, 2);
    return 0;


error: call to `__read_count_toobig_error` declared with attribute error: read called with size bigger than destination

If count cannot be determined at compile-time, a call will be made to __read_chk instead of read and the overflow will be caught at runtime. The atoi call here isn’t currently constant folded so it’s a simple way of emulating a value only known at runtime value for these examples:

#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main(void) {
    char buf[1];
    int fd = open("/dev/zero", O_RDONLY);
    if (fd == -1)
        return 1;
    read(fd, buf, atoi("2") /* runtime value */);
    return 0;


read: prevented write past end of buffer

Unlike glibc, Bionic also tries to catch reads past the end of a buffer, rather than just writes:

#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main(void) {
    char buf[1] = {0};
    int fd = open("/dev/zero", O_RDONLY);
    if (fd == -1)
        return 1;
    write(fd, buf, atoi("2") /* runtime value */);
    return 0;


write: prevented read past end of buffer

Dynamic memory allocations

The alloc_size function attribute can be used to annotate functions returning dynamic memory allocations with the size determined by one (malloc, realloc, etc.) or two (calloc, reallocarray, etc.) function parameters.

#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main(void) {
    char *buf = calloc(1, 1);
    int fd = open("/dev/zero", O_RDONLY);
    if (fd == -1)
        return 1;
    write(fd, buf, atoi("2") /* runtime value */);
    return 0;


write: prevented read past end of buffer

The main C standard library allocation functions are already covered, but there are many functions throughout Android’s large codebase where this can be added. For example, Android still makes use of dlmalloc’s mspace API to implement the Android Runtime’s (ART) alternate non-moving GC heap so it’s marked with the alloc_size attribute by CopperheadOS.

_FORTIFY_SOURCE is highly dependent on compiler optimizations, so it becomes a lot more powerful when the compiler is given much more freedom to optimize. Link-time optimization eliminates the optimization barrier between compilation units in C, causing many more overflows to be caught.

The write example from above can be split up into two files to demonstrate this. Even trivial examples like this are especially common in real-world programs written to be portable across architectures like OpenSSL.


#include <unistd.h>

ssize_t write_wrapper(int fd, const void *buf, size_t count) {
    return write(fd, buf, count);


#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

ssize_t write_wrapper(int, void *, size_t);

int main(void) {
    char buf[1] = {0};
    int fd = open("/dev/zero", O_RDONLY);
    if (fd == -1)
        return 1;
    write_wrapper(fd, buf, atoi("2") /* runtime value */);
    return 0;

The size of buf in write_wrapper is never known, so the write call is just compiled down to a regular unprotected call to write. However, compiling these files with -flto allows write_wrapper to be inlined and the buffer overflow can be detected again:

write: prevented read past end of buffer

CopperheadOS will be moving towards widespread use of link-time optimization to greatly improve features like _FORTIFY_SOURCE. It’s also a hard requirement for Clang’s work-in-progress Control Flow Integrity support.

Compiler deficiencies

_FORTIFY_SOURCE is a great feature, but it’s held back by some compiler deficiencies. For example, there’s no __builtin_runtime_object_size to return sizes that aren’t necessarily constant for the runtime __foo_chk calls. This would allow catching overflows for buffers with dynamic sizes. For example, it would print 32 here rather than having to report the size as unknown:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main(void) {
    char *p = malloc(atoi("32") /* runtime value */);
    if (!p)
        return 1;
    printf("%zu\n", __builtin_object_size(p, 0));
    return 0;

GCC has intrinsics for various fortified functions that are able to provide higher performance and can potentially catch more issues. However, they’re based on glibc’s implementation and miss checking for read overflows. This is somewhat problematic for Bionic.

Clang-specific issues

Clang doesn’t play well with _FORTIFY_SOURCE, because it has poor or missing implementations of the GNU C features that are involved.

The __builtin_object_size intrinsic is supposed to report NULL pointers as having an unknown size, and Clang implements it properly in the frontend’s constant folding. However, null pointers are reported as having a 0 byte size by LLVM and that’s always the path used to handle it for _FORTIFY_SOURCE since Clang doesn’t do inlining in the frontend. This is very problematic for functions like getcwd where null pointers are permitted.

Clang completely ignores fortified functions using the GNU C alias idiom used to call through to the unchecked function in fast paths where overflow can be ruled out at compile-time. This causes it to ignore 95% of the functions in glibc, and Bionic has to work around it with ifdefs.

There are also problems stemming from the clean separation between Clang and LLVM. For example, it provides no error/warning function attributes so it can’t catch issues at compile-time. This also has to be worked around with ifdefs in Bionic.

The __builtin_constant_p intrinsic used to make compile-time fast paths or checks via the error/warning attributes is also problematic. Clang folds it in the frontend (i.e. before inlining and other optimizations) so it will always be 0 in the fortified functions.

Clang lowers __builtin_object_size to an LLVM intrinsic and it doesn’t provide the stricter semantics for _FORTIFY_SOURCE=2. The information needed to do that is lost during the conversion from the C AST to LLVM IR.

The intrinsics used to handle varargs functions in glibc’s _FORTIFY_SOURCE implementation are also missing. This hasn’t been an issue in Bionic yet, because there are specialized intrinsics for most of the varargs functions now and Clang does provide those.

Clang is also missing an implementation of the alloc_size attribute.

Function pointers

Writable function pointers are low-hanging fruit for hijacking control flow with an overflow from a nearby buffer or an arbitrary write vulnerability. CopperheadOS eliminates the remaining cases from libc to provide a good baseline. However, these are widespread in other libraries and applications. C++ and Java (ART) would require compiler mitigations to protect virtual function tables.


Android linker’s already implements a RELRO section for making data read-only after relocations are applied. Among other things, this protects the function pointers in the PLT/GOT. It also makes constants truly read-only even if they depend on the value of ‘constant’ addresses that are determined by the linker during initialization. Android enables the RELRO section and disables lazy linking for all code by default.

Callback registration functions

The standard C library contains a few functions for registering callbacks, and these function pointers can potentially be hijacked by an attacker. Much of Bionic’s code is taken directly from OpenBSD’s libc, including the atexit implementation. It puts the handler data in dedicated read-only pages that are only made writable when new handlers are being registered via atexit.

CopperheadOS extends this memory protection feature to the FreeBSD at_quick_exit implementation used in Bionic along with the native pthread_atfork implementation.

vDSO function pointers

The Linux kernel provides a virtual shared object called the vDSO. This is used to provide blazing fast implementations of functions like gettimeofday, clock_gettime and sched_getcpu without making a system call. In glibc, the vDSO is handled by the dynamic linker so static executables are stuck with slow implementations of these functions. Bionic deals with it by making the calls through a function pointer table, which starts off pointing at the system call wrappers but is then modified to point to the vDSO at runtime. This has the benefit of working in static executables, but it opens up the same hole that’s closed by RELRO.

CopperheadOS makes this function pointer table read-only at runtime, and this improvement was recently upstreamed.

OpenBSD malloc

CopperheadOS replaces jemalloc with a port of OpenBSD’s hardened allocator. It currently uses the same default configuration for it as OpenBSD.

Lots of the global malloc data is made read-only after initialization, and the main global data area is placed at a random offset between two guard pages. A global hash table is used to avoid inline metadata alongside allocations.

By default, it junk fills small allocations upon free and the initial portion of large ones (half a page). This eliminates most information leaks from allocations that are used uninitialized and mitigates some use-after-free vulnerabilities.

Fine-grained randomization is done at both the page cache layer and for small allocations. This can make use-after-free and heap overflow vulnerabilities significantly harder to exploit, along with reducing the utility of address leaks. There’s a lot of room for improvement here. For one thing, it relies on OpenBSD’s fine-grained mmap randomization. CopperheadOS will likely extend it with randomly sized PROT_NONE gaps around the global malloc data to work around this.

There’s also support for adding guard pages to large allocations and sliding allocations to the end of the page to increase the likelihood of hitting these (or an unmapped gap, with guard pages disabled). This is disabled by default because it adds makes allocations larger than the page size significantly slower.

Android used dlmalloc until it switched to jemalloc with 5.0 (Lollipop) and the OpenBSD allocator fares pretty well in a performance comparison against it. It isn’t at all competitive with jemalloc, which has nearly linear scalability rather than global locking, much better single-threaded performance (thread caches amortize the cost of locking, etc.) and very low virtual memory fragmentation. This makes it unsuitable for inclusion upstream, but it’s a perfect fit for CopperheadOS. Garbage collection performance is a lot more important to most Android applications, and code avoiding Java for performance reasons is going to avoid malloc.

Stack smashing protection

Stack smashing protection (SSP) is a compiler feature for catching buffer overflows on the stack at runtime. The compiler inserts a random canary on the stack just after pushing the return pointer and then validates it when the function returns. This can prevent exploitation of a subset of buffer overflow vulnerabilities, and forces the attacker to find a second vulnerability in some other cases.

Bionic is fairly unique in that it supports hardening libc itself with SSP. It explicitly compiles the subset of code where SSP won’t work with -fno-stack-protector. This includes the SSP checking code itself along with the initialization code (like the entire linker) running before TLS and the stack guard value are set up. It would be a lot cleaner if GCC and Clang supported a no_stack_protect attribute to go along with stack_protect.

CopperheadOS includes an additional fix for compiling Bionic with -fstack-protector-strong and it has been submitted upstream. It’s the main (possibly only) blocker for using this across Android’s base system. Copperhead’s patch for using it in the NDK was already accepted.

The problem occurs in the early init code, where a stack address is taken and then passed to various functions:

static pthread_internal_t main_thread;
main_thread.tls = tls;

// Tell the kernel to clear our tid field when we exit, so we're like any other pthread.
// As a side-effect, this tells us our pid (which is the same as the main thread's tid).
main_thread.tid = __set_tid_address(&main_thread.tid);

The -fstack-protector-strong feature protects all functions where overflows are feasible so usage of arrays or stack references will trigger protection.

Isolating libraries from the rest of the mmap heap

Linux ASLR isolates brk heap, mmap heap and main thread stack from each other. PaX also isolates the executable image. Leaking the address of a global variable will give away the position of executable code, but leaking an address on the brk heap or main thread stack will not. However, the linker and dynamic libraries are mapped with mmap, so executable code can be found reliably if any mmap address is leaked. This also applies to malloc allocations backed with mmap, which means all of them with jemalloc and the OpenBSD malloc, although OpenBSD’s malloc does make this a lot harder via fine-grained randomization.

CopperheadOS inserts a random gap after all of the initial libraries are loaded to isolate them from the rest of the mmap heap. This provides 8-bit entropy on 32-bit archs with 4096 byte pages (1MiB gap) and more on 64-bit (1GiB gap). It becomes less useful when a process makes executable memory mappings after the initialization phase, and global C++ constructors can also make it less useful if they allocate during initialization. It does work well for most standalone C and C++ processes, just not the Android Runtime (ART).

It’s easy to see in the /proc/$PID/maps output thanks to Android’s VMA naming (“init random gap”):

shell@hammerhead:/ $ busybox cat /proc/self/maps
0093e000-009cc000 r-xp 00000000 b3:19 1848       /system/xbin/busybox
009cc000-009ce000 r--p 0008d000 b3:19 1848       /system/xbin/busybox
009ce000-009cf000 rw-p 0008f000 b3:19 1848       /system/xbin/busybox
009cf000-009d1000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
009d1000-03f35000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0
03f35000-03f36000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0          [heap]
a93b8000-a93b9000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0          [anon:atexit handlers]
a93b9000-a93bc000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
a93bc000-a93bd000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0          [anon:malloc dir_info guard page]
a93bd000-a93be000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0          [anon:malloc dir_info]
a93be000-a93bf000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0          [anon:malloc dir_info guard page]
a93bf000-a93ee000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0          [anon:init random gap]
a93ee000-a93ef000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0          [anon:pthread_atfork handlers]
a93ef000-a93f0000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
a93f0000-a93f2000 r-xp 00000000 b3:19 1092       /system/lib/libnetd_client.so
a93f2000-a93f3000 r--p 00001000 b3:19 1092       /system/lib/libnetd_client.so
a93f3000-a93f4000 rw-p 00002000 b3:19 1092       /system/lib/libnetd_client.so
a93f4000-a9414000 r--s 00000000 00:0b 5636       /dev/__properties__
a9414000-a9419000 r-xp 00000000 b3:19 1064       /system/lib/liblog.so
a9419000-a941a000 r--p 00004000 b3:19 1064       /system/lib/liblog.so
a941a000-a941b000 rw-p 00005000 b3:19 1064       /system/lib/liblog.so
a941b000-a941c000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
a941c000-a941e000 r-xp 00000000 b3:19 1173       /system/lib/libstdc++.so
a941e000-a941f000 r--p 00001000 b3:19 1173       /system/lib/libstdc++.so
a941f000-a9420000 rw-p 00002000 b3:19 1173       /system/lib/libstdc++.so
a9420000-a9436000 r-xp 00000000 b3:19 1066       /system/lib/libm.so
a9436000-a9437000 r--p 00015000 b3:19 1066       /system/lib/libm.so
a9437000-a9438000 rw-p 00016000 b3:19 1066       /system/lib/libm.so
a9438000-a9443000 r-xp 00000000 b3:19 1001       /system/lib/libcutils.so
a9443000-a9444000 r--p 0000a000 b3:19 1001       /system/lib/libcutils.so
a9444000-a9445000 rw-p 0000b000 b3:19 1001       /system/lib/libcutils.so
a9445000-a9497000 r-xp 00000000 b3:19 980        /system/lib/libc.so
a9497000-a9499000 r--p 00052000 b3:19 980        /system/lib/libc.so
a9499000-a949c000 rw-p 00054000 b3:19 980        /system/lib/libc.so
a949c000-a949f000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
a949f000-a94a0000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0
a94a0000-a94a7000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
a94a7000-a94a8000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0          [anon:linker_alloc]
a94a8000-a94a9000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0          [anon:linker_alloc]
a94a9000-a94aa000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0          [anon:linker_alloc]
a94aa000-a94ab000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0          [anon:atexit handlers]
a94ab000-a94ac000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0
a94ac000-a94ae000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
a94ae000-a94bc000 r-xp 00000000 b3:19 234        /system/bin/linker
a94bc000-a94bd000 r--p 0000d000 b3:19 234        /system/bin/linker
a94bd000-a94be000 rw-p 0000e000 b3:19 234        /system/bin/linker
a94be000-a94bf000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
bc5db000-bc5fc000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0          [stack]
ffff0000-ffff1000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0          [vectors]

ASLR for secondary stacks

Stack overflows caused by alloca, variable length arrays or large stack frames can be used to overshoot the guard page placed at the bottom of thread stacks by default. The -fstack-check feature prevents this by inserting writes to guarantee that the guard page will be hit, but it’s not implemented in Clang and GCC’s ARM implementation is buggy. Leaks of secondary stack addresses also give away the location of other mmap mappings to an attacker.

The write_at_address primitive here has no undefined behavior, and the issue is only caught with a non-default, non-portable compiler switch (ASAN sometimes catches it too, but not always):

#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

static void write_at_address(void *target) {
    char var;

    // create a large enough array to hit the target
    char array[(uintptr_t)&var - (uintptr_t)target];

    // 32 is the magic number for gcc 5.2.0 with -O0 on x86_64
    size_t index = 64;

    if (sizeof(array) <= index)

    ((char volatile *)array)[index] = 'X';

int main(void) {
    int size = 100;
    char *alloc = malloc(size);
    if (!alloc)
        return 1;
    memset(alloc, '.', size);

    printf("%.*s\n", size, alloc);
    printf("%.*s\n", size, alloc);

    return 0;

In grsecurity, there’s a RAND_THREADSTACK feature to mitigate this via random gaps with 8-bit entropy. It relies on the MAP_STACK flag being set for secondary stacks, which isn’t done by Bionic. CopperheadOS currently only uses the PaX subset of grsecurity, but it implements a similar feature in Bionic as it’s more feasible to upstream that. It will send a SIGSEGV signal when it’s hit so it’s not quite the same.

An advantage of doing this in userspace is the ability to provide a secondary form of randomization, by choosing a random base for the stack within the first page. This provides an extra 8 bits of entropy with 4096 byte pages and 16 byte stack alignment. It also provides cache coloring, reducing cache misses when threads use similar data layouts. It doesn’t make stack address leaks less useful but it does make most overflows from or into the stack unreliable.

This feature has been submitted upstream, and I expect that it will be merged. It is currently quite conservative on 32-bit where virtual memory isn’t an abundant resource.

Sample program:

#include <pthread.h>
#include <stdio.h>

void *print_base(void *data) {
    char stack_value;
    printf("%p\n", &stack_value);
    return data;

int main(void) {
    pthread_t thread;
    for (unsigned i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
        if (pthread_create(&thread, NULL, print_base, NULL)) {
            return 1;
        if (pthread_join(thread, NULL)) {
            return 1;
    return 0;

Output (on 32-bit):


Signal stack guard pages

Bionic uses sigaltstack by default in order to provide error messages for stack overflows by default. However, it was missing a guard page on the tiny single page signal stack, so non-trivial signal handlers could easily overflow that stack. CopperheadOS includes a guard page for these, and the change has been merged upstream.


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